Many homeowners are not focused on yard drainage until these people have a problem. Water naturally follows the trail of least resistance to lower elevations and problems arise when original pathways constructed by the builder become blocked or were inadequate right from the start. Not having suitable slopes and drains on the property to direct or divert water runoff makes it possible for water to locate a path right to locations where you'd least need it for example foundations, under pavement, in your basement etc. Flooding basements and cracked foundations are fantastic wake-up calls to the issue but addressing problems beforehand can help you save thousands of dollars, and headaches, down the road.
The 2 kinds of water supplying a lawn are surface and subsurface. Subsurface water refers back to the water below the first layer of topsoil which cannot permeate any lower due to the tightness of the soil beneath. Also known as the water table, all soil has this layer water with variations in depth with regards to the area. Although a higher water table can be a problem in a few areas, in general, surface water is the cause of excess subsurface water as too much surface water penetrating the floor can raise the water table. Surface ponds are rainfall and irrigation, for example sprinklers, and can be particularly troublesome in urbanized areas which contain numerous impervious surfaces.
Streets, driveways and parking lots simply leave nowhere for rainwater to visit. As with a lawn, the runoff will either pool in depressions or flow to soil around the edges causing saturation in another area. When soil reaches 100% saturation, with little or no drainage to assistance with excess water removal, not only do pools of water collect, nevertheless the saturated soil takes a lot longer to dry out. This excess water retards plant growth by decreasing aeration within the root zone and decreasing nutrient supplies. Additionally, excess water inside the soil will increase freezing damage in the wintertime. Having proper drainage on your property prevents water from collecting around the dwelling or home foundations, minimize soil erosion and protect your vegetation from death and disease.
Surface and subsurface are the two types of drainage solutions and both are vital protections for buildings and lawns. Surface drainage refers back to the natural pathway taken through the water following rain or irrigation and is also achieved through gutters, downspouts, surface grates, exposed French drains and by shaping and grading your lawn to offer maximum surface water removal with minimum soil erosion. Subsurface drainage identifies pipes and drains put in the lawn which remove excess water which includes gravitated underground, most likely through holes in the soil or simply just from soil saturation. Water travels through soil by capillary action, which can be just like a paper towel - when one side gets wet, moisture will slowly go to the dry side before the entire substance is saturated. After the soil is saturated, subsurface French drains are needed to remove excess water. By doing this, subsurface drainage keeps plants healthy, helps soil to warm earlier in the year and instead gives off less water to freeze during the cold months, minimizing frost heaving damage to your house or building.
Problems related to improper drainage
Improper drainage can result in pools of collected water inside your lawn and/or around your home or building, both of which pose a threat. When collected close to your foundation, standing water could very well cause foundation cracks, foundation movement and flooded basements. When collected on your yard, pooling water gives mosquitoes a breeding ground and may leave your grass prone to disease.
Foundations: The costliest issue associated with improper drainage can be your foundation. Soil naturally expands when it is wet and contracts if it is dry if all the soil underneath the structure expands and contracts uniformly, i am not suggesting to cause an issue. Damage is performed, however, when only section of the soil heaves or settles. This differential movement is most often because of differences in soil moisture. Improper drainage on one side from the building can leave wet soil that is still waterlogged for several days or weeks (or perhaps in worst cases leaves constant water pooled around your foundation walls) while the other part of the structure has soil that dries quickly following a rain.
The wet side has expanded, and stays so, while the other part contracts because it dries, and also this action pulls the walls from the structure away from each other. Repeating this technique could eventually produce cracks inside the foundations, walls and/or ceilings. Foundation repairs are not usually included in homeowner's insurance policies and will cost just as much as $20,000 to $30,000 or even more to fix, excluding cosmetic fixes to drywall, door jams, bricks, flooded carpets, flooring, etc. Whoever has experienced a flooded basement or cracks because of heaving can confirm a costly fix! In addition, the drainage issues which caused the situation will still have to be addressed.
Basements: The same issue connected with foundations relates to your basement, with all the added problem of letting water in your home through the cracks. Along with damaging carpets, flooring, drywall and furniture, water increases your basement's humidity creating the perfect environment for that development of bacteria and mold. Mold enters your property as tiny spores, which require moisture to cultivate and multiply. They are able to grow on almost any surface plus they digest and destroy your home while they do. When disturbed, mold spores are freed in to the air and can be inhaled on your part you, aggravating asthma and allergies. A small amount of molds produce mycotoxins which may induce nausea, fatigue, headaches and lung and eye irritation when a individual is exposed to high levels. Furthermore, mites and spiders can proliferate in a moldy basement as mites prey on mold spores and spiders feed on mites.
Waterproofing your basement will help protect your home and it is a good insurance plan, your first distinct defense against a wet basement is improving the drainage inside the lawn and all areas around the home or building. According to most engineers and home inspectors, 85 to 95% of wet basements and interiors of buildings can be made dry by improving exterior drainage around your house or building.
Mosquitoes: We are all acquainted with one of the primary nuisances of the summer but were you aware that mosquitoes need less than an oz . water in which to lay their eggs? While standing water is generally the egg-laying site for mosquitoes, some species lay their eggs on damp soil and, if the lawn has poor drainage, leaves your grass being a perfect home of these pests. Needing only 2 to 3 days to hatch, your property has to be capable of dry quickly enough with the idea to prevent females from seeing your yard being a prime location in order to dry eggs which were laid.
With females laying approximately 300 eggs at the same time, your yard can simply become infested, making you you inside on warm summer nights. Combined with itching and aggravation of bites, mosquitoes bring diseases such as West Nile Virus, Malaria, Dengue and encephalitis. Each is potentially fatal. Your pets are also at an increased risk, as mosquitoes will be the hosts for heartworm and can communicate this complaint to dogs, cats as well as other animals. Additionally, West Nile and encephalitis can be transmitted to horses. The American Mosquito Control Association instructs property owners not only to eliminate standing water around your property or building, but to make sure proper drainage in your property to eliminate this potential hazard.
Turf Diseases: As the first impression visitors or customer has of your home or business, it's no doubt important to you to definitely have well-maintained and welcoming landscaping around your property. Death and disease of grass and plants isn't only ugly, this is a waste of income invested as well as expensive to correct. Excess water on or perhaps in your lawn prohibits the growth of grass, plants and trees by robbing them of the air and nutrient supply and leaving them prone to attack by fungi, moss and mold. Fungi, the most typical reason for lawn diseases, are microscopic organisms that spread by air- or water-borne spores. The spores become seeds, sprouting your and infecting its environment when conditions are right.
Rhizoctonia Yellow Patch, Red Thread, and Pythium Blight are a handful of common fungi diseases which come in moist environments resulting from extreme soil and surface moisture. Lots of the fungi diseases are difficult to manage once they appear and damage may remain for two to 4 years following treatment. While fungicides does apply to assist prevent or control lawn diseases, several strains are resistant to fungicides. The best prevention is the absence of favorable conditions, including improving moisture conditions on top of, and under, your turf.
Mushrooms likewise require extreme wet conditions to cultivate. While mushrooms usually do not harm grass, most of them are poisonous and can be described as a danger to children and pets that ingest them. Poisonous mushrooms have no features to distinguish them from nonpoisonous mushrooms and identification, therefore, is only possible by those educated about the various genera and species.
Erosion: As well as the issues associated with standing water, water moving too rapidly off your home causes problems as well. As raindrops fall on your lawn, when there is sufficient intensity, the impact will dislodge small particles of soil which can then be carried off by the rain as it flows. This soil will be either carried off to sewers or deposited in another area of your yard, according to your drainage conditions. As time passes, original drainage measures, such as ditches and trenches, may become filled up with soil, defeating their purpose and redirecting how water moves on your premises. Erosion is accelerated where plant cover is sparse and spaces between plants become larger, leaving no protection for your soil during intense rains. Proper grades and slopes stop water from carrying away your soil by maintaining water runoff with an acceptable rate. Reducing water that is running off too quickly gives soil particles time to settle from the water and back to the ground prior to being transported too far away. Additionally, healthy plants with deep roots protects and holds to your soil.
Benefits of a good drainage
Structural Protection: Creating a comprehensive drainage system set up protects your structure by preventing water's damaging contact with concrete. Water it doesn't evaporate and isn't absorbed by soil eventually goes somewhere and, oftentimes, it sits under and around your foundations. Drainage solutions can keep the moisture content around your foundation stable and uniform, keeping contraction and expansion down. This maintains the integrity of foundations and helps prevent cracks and water seepage.
Plants and Landscaping: Proper soil moisture is vital for plants and lawns to determine a wholesome root system. Removal of excess water within the soil deepens the basis zone and raises the air on the bottom. The increased aeration, consequently, boosts the way to obtain nutrients, a few of which need the air to convert chemically before they are offered to plants. The deep root system which grows will then holds on to the soil and protect it from punctures from erosion. Additionally, water won't pool in regions of your property, leaving turf vunerable to disease, and help you take care of the pleasing aesthetics that you invested.
Recreational Areas: By implementing drainage solutions, recreational areas, for example parks, courses and athletic fields, improve traffic ability and increased use of the property. Drains help nature clean out excess water and permit turf to quickly cure rain. The result is that the recreational area could be open for extended periods of time as well as for more intensive use, causing increased revenue.
Spring showers aren't the only cause of concern
The Midwest is notorious for extreme weather changes with a drought twelve months and floods the next. While St. Louis has an average rainfall around 40 inches, in 2008 there were 50.72 inches pour down on us, with nearly 1 / 2 of that amount coming between June and September. For those who have weathered winter snow and spring rains, do not allow down your guard thinking you're safe for another year. Summer can occasionally bring surprises as well as the added deluge in your soil will simply intensify existing problems requiring more extensive repairs.
A note about water tables
Water table means depth at which the soil always contains 100% water. In certain areas the water table is more than the base of the building blocks, requiring a complex system of drains and sump pumps to draw in the lake from your structure. High water tables can cause devastating damage to your foundation or basement and is sometimes cited by professional waterproofers since the reason for a challenge as a result of expensive measures to improve it. The nation's Association of Home Builders, however, estimates that only five percent of wet basements result from high water tables. For those who have water damage, you're probably coping with surface runoff problems which is often corrected through slopes, grades and drains on your property, in addition to proper gutter systems. Modern building codes prevent contractors from building basements where water tables are high and when your home or building is under 30 years old you will be reasonably sure a higher water table isn't your problem. For those who have a wet basement, know about this matter! Inform yourself by contacting your neighborhood building inspector and becoming information regarding your local water table.
Do you have drainage problems?
Do that experiment: dig a hole one foot across and two feet deep and fill it up completely with water during a dry spell. In the event the hole drains completely in less than 5 minutes or in a lot more than Quarter-hour, there is a problem. A more simple approach to spot problems is to take a look at lawn during and following a rain. If you have water flowing quickly across the yard removing topsoil during a rain or pools water on driveways, parking lots or lawns following rain, then you've got a problem. Other indicators include yellowing plants, yellowing or thin turf although it receives plenty of sunlight and contains no obvious disease, fungus or mold around the lawn, stagnate water smell and water seeping through door sills, basements and garages.
Types of drainage solutions
A comprehensive drainage system will include surface and subsurface drain solutions. Surface drains eliminate the huge amounts of water that fall in a nutshell periods of time and subsurface drains eliminate the excess water distributed around the soil. Both systems are employed in conjunction to keep up the moisture inside your soil on the proper level for protection of one's landscaping and your home or building.
Gutters: Your first distinct defense against foundation flooding can be your gutters! Within a moderate rainfall, the common sized roof sheds 160 gallons water runoff hourly. To prevent the runoff from being deposited on a lawn next to your foundation, a proper gutter method is essential. Not merely is the correct gutter size to your roof area an option, but an insufficient number of downspouts is equivalent to without gutter system in any way. Downspouts are necessary to handle the amount of runoff your roof will collect and splash blocks must be employed to direct the runoff away from your home or building and to your drain system. A better solution to splash blocks, however, would be to install PVC piping for the end of the downspouts to eliminate the lake 6-10 feet or maybe more away from your home or building. Furthermore, gutters must be properly maintained to avoid clogs and gutter joints must be inspected for leaks. Using a suitable, effective gutter system ought to be the initial step inside your drainage solution.
Grades: To guard structures, the main grades in your property are the ones within 10 feet of the foundation or basement. This will stop the water you just diverted from the structure from soaking back through the soil toward your structure. Suitable grades vary depending on whom you consult but a good measurement is really a 1 inch (or more) drop for every 1 foot out for the first 10 feet. This results in no less than a ten inch slope for your 10 feet nearest your foundation walls. The rest of your yard should include a continuous slope downward to keep the water moving away from your foundation.
Surface Drains: Surface drainage can be defined as the controlled elimination of water that collects on the land from rainfall, irrigation, snowmelt or hillside seeps. As gravity may be the primary force driving this kind of system, it involves shaping the land with a continuous fall in the earth level to provide a downhill passage for surface runoff at an appropriate rate of flow. For grass drainage channels, or swales, a minimum slope of 1% to 5% is desired. The contours from the land then direct the runoff to a suitable collection site, such as ditches, basins or storm sewers. On the low reason for the ditch or interception point, area drains are installed which are attached to a principal or submain and prevents the water from pooling on your property. The underground pipes need a minimum slope of 1% or 1/8 inch per foot to maintain water moving through them. In the event the ditch is long, several smaller drains ought to be spaced in a series, rather than one large drain in the middle, to assist prevent erosion.
For driveways along with other hardscapes, channel drains and exposed French drains are great. These linear trenches collect sheets of water running off, as concrete and asphalt absorb not one of the water since it falls. Outside section of the channel/ exposed French drain is much higher than a location drain and is also better suited for the greater amount of rain it'll need to collect. Additionally, channel drains allow designers to modestly slope hardscapes, instead of requiring numerous, extreme slopes to direct runoff to area drains.
Subsurface Drains: While some great benefits of subsurface drainage take time and effort to determine because they occur inside the soil, the main difference is going to be noticeable inside your plants, grass and soil. Subsurface drainage is the removal of gravitational water from the soil, which can be accomplished by placing French drains underground to collect and remove water to some drainage outlet. Subsurface drains don't remove water essential for plants, only excess water, which flows to the drains by gravity. Sub-Surface French drains consist excavating a substantial trench and lining it with a filter or geotextile fabric, which assists prevent soil particles from entering in france they drain. The trench is then full of clean rock/gravel plus a proper sized perforated PVC pipe for the application is positioned within the gravel.
After the trench is filled with grave, it will likely be covered with a layer a permeable filter fabric, installing a mixture of top quality topsoil/ sand not only that installing new sod at the top (assuming this French drain is going to be located in a grassy area). French drains function when water within the soil enters the gravel bed, flows into the perforated pipe and travels through connecting solid pipes to a discharge point. A broad guideline for placing French drains is to use Four to six inch perforated pipes, bury them 18 to 36 inches deep and space them 15-20 feet apart. Inside the trenches, pipes must conserve a .1% to a 1% slope. Soil construct, acreage and turf usage, however, may need variation readily available guidelines plus a professional can assist you determine the most effective solution for your situation.
Discharge Outlets: Once water is collected within the pipes, it must be diverted with a suitable outlet to be removed. This outlet could be a street gutter, a storm sewer or even an onsite pond. Employing a pop-up drainage emitter, water could be diverted with a water-safe area on your property away from your home or building. Pop-up drainage emitters are opened from the hydrostatic pressure water flowing from the drain pipe, releasing water collected from gutters, downspouts, basins, grates, etc. If placed near the street, the released water can flow on the curb and to the street without having to drill with the curb. The emitters then close as waterflow and drainage diminishes, preventing debris and animals from entering the end of the pipe and clogging the machine. House owner or maintenance personnel must make sure they perform routine maintenance about the pop-up emitters. This can be achieved by taking out the pop-up to make sure there isn't any debris washed down from the roof gutters or surface drains that can potentially reduce the waterflow and drainage in a heavy rainfall event.
Cleanout Connections: It's a good option to put in cleanout connections on all drainage systems incorporated into your home. This can be commonly overlooked until pipes need to be accessed by cameras or cleaning equipment years after the initial installation. Access points are required for the following three reasons. 1) Routine maintenance, especially if routine maintenance is neglected because the contractor must access the pipe to unclog them for a fee obviously. 2) If the systems functionality has declined. 3) If damage has occurred towards the drainage system pipes from heavy equipment or excavation throughout an on-site construction project. Although cleanouts add cost in your project, it is highly recommended to get cleanouts installed on all downspout connections, all French drain systems and many types of long mainline pipe runs over 80' without drain grates in which you can access.
Before contracting to have you project installed, make sure cleanouts are integrated into your drainage system. It's been calculated how the cost to cut into a pipe and then patch it as there are no cleanouts is a minimum of twice the cost as getting them to placed in the initial place. It is sometimes 5-10 times as much when access is necessary to a preexisting French drain without cleanout connections. So don't gamble because if you are installing something with materials that last decades, you undoubtedly will be needing access; if for free else, routine maintenance. A specialist drainage contractor can help you determine the most effective cleanout points for your system their proposing to your property.
Finding & Employing a qualified drainage contractor
Doing research on potential drainage installers is very important. You need to be assured your contractor is insured and has the skills necessary to properly install your systems. Be suspicious of "special deals" or the "great deal from your friend of your friend" - these will most likely cost you more dollars and headaches in the end.
Tools to find a possible Drainage Contractor: The Bbb is a great starting point during your search for a contractor. They maintain a web-based directory for BBB-accredited businesses in your area. You should check not merely how long a contractor has been doing business, but in addition any complaints filed regarding operation. Angie's List is another great tool for recommendations, as you can get testimonials from actual customers. Even if you "hear of the guy from the friend," check their references online. See the other people's experiences happen to be and judge a swimming pool of potential contractors in the best you'll find.
Portfolio and References: After you've got a list of potential people for the position, ask to see a portfolio of the previous jobs and whether you can see former worksites. If possible, see their handiwork personally, perhaps driving by way of a home or office during or after a rain. This will help you not only to understand their drainage plans for your property, but to assure you they could indeed perform the job right. When you can consult with former customers, ask if these folks were satisfied with the work, whether the contractor stayed within budget and if the project was carried out a timely manner. You need to search for the very best person for the job, not the lowest bid. You would like the problem to be fixed upon project completion; you do not want to become dealing with drainage problems or, in worst case scenarios, legal issues, even after the contractor has left.
Bids: Get a minimum of two bids to your specific job and get them written. Furthermore, make sure you view the distinction between the bids. Higher bids don't invariably mean a contractor is trying to get more money into his pocket. Better materials, more skilled workmanship and better reliability will probably be worth a rather high price. Keep in mind that, usually, you "get everything you buy."
Insurance: A significant issue when employing a contractor is his insurance. If the contractor does not carry general insurance or workers compensation, the house owner can held responsible for almost any accidents which occur while jobs are being carried out. To protect yourself, request proof insurance. Reputable contractors will recognize that you do your research and won't be offended. Be skeptical associated with a that attempt to convince you this is unnecessary - they may have something to hide.
Skills Needed: Make sure potential contractors hold the skills needed to do your job. Is the contractor a drainage specialist or simply a landscaper that has dabbled in drainage installation? Can he utilize a transit to evaluate your slopes if needed? Does he understand the proper depths and spacing for pipe placement on your lawn? Most importantly, is he diverting your excess water to some suitable outlet? Purposefully diverting water with a neighbor's yard, when runoff didn't already naturally flow to that yard, can lead to huge fines. Because the home owner, you will be held accountable for your contractor's end result.
Equipment, Supervision & Project Site Management: Discover that will supervise the task and just how often will they be onsite to determine that the plans are followed? Will the project continue daily until finished without interruption besides weather delays? You need to know who to call for those who have an issue or problem. Furthermore, does your contractor get the the equipment to get the task finished?
Products: Which products does the contractor use and so are they the most effective on the market? Be suspicious of contractors that offer a large discount because they use materials left from the previous job. While you could be considering saving a couple of bucks, have you been certain these materials are suitable for you project and needs? Obtaining the project completed with substandard materials that wont last never ends well for your home owner. You could have to have the system torn up and reinstalled a few years later, squandering your double down the road.
Warranty: Make certain there's some type of a manufacturer's warranty along with your drainage system installation once it's complete. More importantly feel confident enough using the company that they will be running a business to satisfy that warranty agreement. See if they are able to offer you a past customer you could call approach where they'd a manufacturer's warranty issue that the contractor successfully resolved for them. Many specialized drainage companies give you a minimum of a 12-month warranty of full functionality, some contractors offer more.
Warning: We know of a family group who hired a contractor that a friend's neighbor had used. Whilst they met with him and thought he seemed like a "good guy," they did no research on him or his business and references weren't checked. After realizing that no real progress have been manufactured in spite with the thousands of dollars that they had paid him, they began to investigate. The fact is, the friend's neighbor had had similar complaints and was dissatisfied. If the homeowners had spoken to the people for whom the contractor had worked, rather than going through their impression of his personality, they might have been spared a good chunk of change. As well as leaving their house a complete mess, they lost all the money initially invested together to cover another person to complete the job. Furthermore, since they we had not done their homework about the contract, that they had little legal recourse. The lesson: always err along the side of caution! Usually do not believe that a contractor has your best interests in your mind; examine their previous jobs and, when possible, consult people to whom they've got worked. So many people are happy to inform you of their experiences with a business, whether good or bad, and businesses using a solid reputation usually are not wary of you seeing their previous work.
Copyright © 2010 Team Green Outdoor Inc. All rights reserved
More Articles in Community Articles
Giacomo Gates: “Everything Is Cool” at SOUTH Jazz Parlor
LiveIt!Live - Straight from Chez Josephine
Portinho, in his own words
Portinho, in his own words
Hristo Vitchev Quartet LIVE at Kuumbwa Jazz Center - July 7th
First Orbit Sounds Music